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Ethical Reasoning, Values, and Critical Reasoning This week’s discussion question asks you to draw upon the interactive lecture and readings for this week and address two of the following four questions regarding concepts of ethical reasoning: What is the essential basis for ethical reasoning, according to Paul and Elder? Why are ethical principles not a matter of subjective preference? How might reasoning processes be used to achieve unethical goals? What examples of this have you witnessed in your personal or professional life? What are some challenges of moral absolutism and moral relativism? How do you assess religious ideals as a source of value and ethics? How would Azlin Puteh Salin, Ab Manan, Kamaluddin, and Nawawi (2017) argue for specific types of religious ethics as a means to think critically? Why might Norenzayan (2014) challenge their thinking. Discussion 2 This week we are looking at hegemonic masculinity, feminism, gender, and power. How do we explore these difficult questions of power and sexism but also include women’s voices which have traditionally been left out of the dialogue? Language is deeply rooted in power, and the construction of gender has left women’s voices in the periphery. As we look at feminism and criminology as well as women policing, you are charged this week with thinking critically about women’s voices in the realm of power and control—control not of other people but of women themselves in the arena of crime and policing, both of which have been relegated to men and masculinity. In your own words, define “hegemonic masculinity” and give an example from one of the videos from this week’s required material. Getting at difficult questions, think about your favorite relative or friend asking if you think the U.S. is a patriarchal society. After reviewing the material this week, how would you respond? Finally, using research, back up your arguments with at least one scholarly source.